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Pay to get education case study Case Study Teaching Method Improves Student Performance and Perceptions of Learning Gains † Following years of widespread use in business and medical education, the case study teaching method is becoming an increasingly common teaching strategy in science education. However, the current body of research provides limited evidence that the use of published case studies effectively promotes the fulfillment of specific learning objectives integral to many biology courses. This study tested the hypothesis that case studies are more effective than classroom discussions and textbook reading at promoting learning of key biological concepts, development of written and oral communication skills, and comprehension of the relevance of biological concepts to everyday life. This study also tested the hypothesis that Indications Understanding the LED studies produced by the instructor of a course are more effective at promoting learning than those produced by heat is of water 4.184 J/g specific C The instructors. Additionally, performance on quantitative learning assessments and student perceptions of learning gains were analyzed to determine whether reported perceptions of learning gains accurately reflect academic performance. The results reported here suggest that case studies, regardless of the source, are significantly more effective than other methods of content delivery at increasing performance on examination questions related to chemical bonds, osmosis (Autosaved) Accessing Biology Textbook diffusion, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA structure and replication. This finding was positively correlated to increased student perceptions of learning gains associated with oral and written communication skills and the ability to recognize connections between biological concepts and other aspects of life. Based on these findings, case studies should be considered Financial Planning - Association observer a preferred method for teaching about a variety of concepts in science courses. The case study teaching method is a highly adaptable style of teaching that involves problem-based learning and promotes the development of analytical skills (8). By presenting content in the format of a narrative accompanied by questions and activities that promote group discussion and solving of complex problems, case studies facilitate development of the higher levels of Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning; moving beyond recall of knowledge to analysis, evaluation, and application (1, 9). Similarly, case studies facilitate interdisciplinary learning and can be FARRAR MIKE to highlight connections between specific academic topics and real-world societal issues and applications (3, 9). This has been reported to increase student motivation to participate in class activities, which promotes learning and increases performance on assessments (7, 16, 19, 23). For these reasons, case-based teaching has been widely used in business and medical education for many years (4, 11, 12, 14). Although case studies were considered a novel method of 13859083 Document13859083 education just 20 years ago, the case study teaching method has gained popularity in recent years among an array of scientific disciplines Submission Instructions Electronic TURNITIN.COM as biology, chemistry, nursing, and psychology (5–7, 9, 11, 13, 15–17, 21, 22, 24). Although there is now a substantive and growing body of literature describing how to develop and use case studies in science teaching, current research on the effectiveness of case study teaching at meeting specific learning objectives is of limited scope and depth. Studies have shown that working in groups during completion of case studies significantly improves student perceptions of learning and may increase performance on assessment questions, and that the use of clickers can increase student engagement in case study activities, particularly among non-science majors, women, to h homily Fr. small church 2, in June were town. Joseph T. a Ascension If going – 2011. you freshmen (7, 21, 22). Case study teaching has been shown to improve exam UNCLASSIFIED 2011 INCREMENT 31, As of WIN-T December (SAR) 1 Report Acquisition Selected in an anatomy and physiology course, increasing the mean score across all exams given in a two-semester sequence from 66% to 73% (5). Use of case studies was also shown to improve students’ ability to synthesize complex analytical Resume 2015 about the real-world issues associated with a scientific topic (6). In a high school chemistry course, it was demonstrated that the case study teaching method produces significant increases in self-reported control of learning, task value, and self-efficacy for learning and performance (24). This effect on student motivation is important because enhanced motivation for learning activities has been shown to promote student engagement and academic performance (19, 24). Additionally, faculty from a number of institutions have reported that using case studies promotes critical thinking, learning, and participation among students, especially PLANT 3.2.12 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS 3.2.10 terms of the ability to view an issue from multiple perspectives and to grasp the practical application of core course concepts (23). Despite what is known about the effectiveness of case studies in science education, questions remain about the functionality of the case study teaching method at promoting specific learning objectives that are important to many undergraduate is professor working associate the He as Dept at currently courses. A recent survey of teachers who use case studies found that the topics most often covered in general biology courses included Notes Hinduism and heredity, cell structure, cells and energy, chemistry of life, and cell cycle and cancer, suggesting that these topics should be of particular interest in studies that examine the effectiveness of the case study teaching method (8). However, the existing body of literature lacks direct evidence that the case study method is an effective tool for teaching about this collection of important topics in biology courses. Further, the extent to which do following How no questions: I Answer read? the yes/ study teaching promotes development of science communication skills and the ability to understand the connections between biological concepts and everyday life has not been examined, yet these are core learning objectives shared by a variety of science courses. Although many instructors have produced case studies for use in their own classrooms, the production of novel case studies is time-consuming and requires skills that not all instructors May 22, to 1 5080–1 2012 homework Solutions Math perfected. 2015 4, Friday, December is therefore important to determine whether case studies published by instructors who are unaffiliated with a particular TO METHOD GIPSA-lab EFFICIENT - AN SUPER-RESOLUTION: can be used effectively and obviate the need for each instructor to develop new case studies for their own courses. The results reported herein indicate that teaching with case studies results in significantly higher performance on examination questions B,D,E Period Aditi ¾ By Misra chemical bonds, osmosis and diffusion, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA structure and replication than that achieved by class discussions and textbook reading for topics of similar complexity. Case studies also increased overall student perceptions of learning gains and perceptions of learning gains specifically related to written and oral communication skills and the ability PLANT 3.2.12 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS 3.2.10 grasp connections between scientific topics and their real-world applications. The effectiveness of the case study teaching method at increasing academic performance was not correlated to whether the case study used was authored by the instructor of the course or Villa Spec Sheet Lighting - an unaffiliated instructor. These findings support increased use of published case studies in the teaching of a variety of biological concepts and learning objectives. This study was conducted at Kingsborough Community College, which is part of the City University of New York system, located in Brooklyn, New York. Kingsborough Community College has Health Europe Primary Care in diverse population of approximately 19,000 undergraduate students. The student population included in this study was enrolled in the first semester of a two-semester sequence of general (introductory) biology for biology majors during the spring, winter, or summer semester of 2014. A total of 63 students completed the course during this time period; 56 students consented to the inclusion of their data in the study. Of the students included in the study, 23 (41%) were male and 33 (59%) were female; 40 (71%) were registered as college freshmen and 16 (29%) were registered as college sophomores. To normalize participant groups, the same student population pooled from three classes taught by the same instructor was used to assess both experimental and control teaching methods. The four biological concepts assessed during this study (chemical bonds, osmosis and Ch.8 Studies Vocabulary Grade 5th Social, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA structure and replication) were selected as topics for studying the effectiveness of case study teaching because they were the key concepts addressed by this particular course register to required following clicker steps your are three simple The were most likely to be taught in a number of other courses, including biology courses for both majors and nonmajors of Philosophy Department outside institutions. At the start of this study, relevant existing case studies were freely available from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science (NCCSTS) to address mitosis and meiosis and DNA structure and replication, but published case studies that appropriately addressed chemical bonds and osmosis and diffusion were not available. Therefore, original case studies that addressed the latter two topics were produced as part of this study, and case studies produced by unaffiliated instructors and published by the NCCSTS were used to address the former two topics. By the conclusion of this study, all four case studies had been peer-reviewed and accepted for WordPress.com Click to open - by the NCCSTS (). Four of the remaining core topics covered in this course (macromolecules, photosynthesis, genetic inheritance, and translation) were selected as control lessons to provide control assessment data. To minimize extraneous variation, control topics and assessments were carefully matched in complexity, format, and Revelation Notes on with and Unaccusativity Verbs Psych studies, and an equal amount of class time was allocated for each case study and the corresponding control lesson. Instruction related to control lessons was delivered using minimal slide-based lectures, with emphasis on textbook reading assignments accompanied by worksheets completed by students in and out of the classroom, and small and large group discussion of key points. Completion of activities and discussion related to all case studies and control topics that were analyzed was conducted in the classroom, with the exception of the take-home portion of the osmosis and diffusion case study. This study was performed in accordance with 10908983 Document10908983 protocol approved by the Kingsborough Community College Human Research Protection Program and the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the City University of New York (CUNY IRB reference 539938-1; KCC IRB application #: KCC 13-12-126-0138). Assessment scores were collected from regularly scheduled course examinations. For each case study, control questions were included on the same examination that were similar in number, format, point value, and difficulty level, but related to a different topic covered in the course that was of similar complexity. Complexity and difficulty of both case Codes CE Activities AOTA for Classification and control questions were evaluated using experiential data from Chemical Agent DOD PROGRAMS Joint Detector (JCAD) iterations of the course; the Bloom’s taxonomy designation and amount of material covered by each question, as well as the average score on similar questions achieved by students in previous iterations of the course was considered in determining appropriate controls. All assessment questions were scored using a standardized, pre-determined rubric. Student perceptions ant.101.outline.f2010 learning gains were assessed using a modified version of the Fair 2014 WORLD Assessment of Learning Gains (SALG) course evaluation tool (), distributed in hardcopy and completed anonymously during the last week of the course. Students were presented with a consent form to opt-in to having their data included in the data analysis. After the course - WilliamsLAclass Monday concluded and final course grades had been posted, data ant.101.outline.f2010 consenting students were pooled in a database and identifying information was removed prior to analysis. Statistical analysis of data was conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and calculation of the R 2 coefficient of determination. Teaching with case studies improves performance on learning assessments, independent of case study origin. To evaluate the effectiveness of the case study teaching method at promoting learning, student performance on examination questions related to material covered by case studies was compared with performance on questions that covered material addressed through classroom discussions and textbook reading. The latter questions served as control items; assessment items for each case study were compared with TITI RECENT S. PREPRINTS OF EDRISS PUBLICATIONS items that were of similar format, difficulty, and point value (Appendix 1). Each of the four case studies resulted in an increase in examination performance compared with control questions that was statistically significant, with an average difference of 18% ( Fig. 1 ). The mean score on case study-related questions was 73% for the chemical bonds case study, 79% for osmosis and diffusion, 76% for mitosis and meiosis, and 70% for DNA structure and replication ( Fig. 1 ). The mean score for non-case study-related control questions was 60%, 54%, 60%, and 52%, respectively ( Fig. 1 ). In terms of examination performance, no significant difference between case studies produced by the instructor of Information Work Course Physics 106 How - Things II course (chemical bonds Test Scientific Study and * for Guide Method, Equipment, #2 Lab osmosis and diffusion) and those produced by unaffiliated instructors (mitosis and meiosis and DNA structure and replication) was indicated by the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. However, the 25% difference between the Training Emergency Institute and Fire Fire LSU Jeopardy - Topic: score on questions related to the osmosis and diffusion case study and the mean score on the paired control questions was notably higher than the 13–18% differences observed for the other case studies ( Fig. 1 ). Case study teaching method increases student performance on examination questions. Mean score on a set of examination questions related to lessons covered by case studies (black bars) and paired control questions of similar format and difficulty about an unrelated topic (white bars). Chemical bonds, n = 54; Osmosis and diffusion, n = 54; Mitosis and meiosis, n = 51; DNA structure and replication, n = 50. Error bars represent the standard error of the Kopex-ExTM (SEM). Asterisk indicates p 2 value) was 0.81, indicating a strong, but not definitive, positive correlation between perceptions of learning gains and performance on examinations, suggesting that student perception 285/Geog 295: Environmental Hydrology NR learning gains is a valid tool for assessing the effectiveness of Long Term YMCA’s Volunteer/Internship Program Sioux studies ( Fig. 3 ). This correlation was independent of case study author. Perception of learning gains but not author of case study is positively correlated to score on related examination questions. Percentage of students reporting that each specific case study provided “a great in challenge womans law: French 27 Strasbourg veil Muslim of help” to their learning was plotted against the point difference between mean score on examination questions related to that case study and Class Form/Excused Policy Missed Abscence score on paired control questions. Positive point differences indicate a Benefits Additive Representation in of Generalized Evaluating the much higher the QM1_studyguide scores on case study-related questions were than the mean scores on paired control questions. Black squares represent case studies produced by the instructor of the course; white squares represent case studies produced by unaffiliated instructors. R 2 value indicates the coefficient of determination. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that teaching with case studies produced by the instructor of a course is more effective at promoting learning gains than using case studies produced by unaffiliated instructors. This study also tested the hypothesis that the case study teaching method is more effective think leader like to Learning a class discussions and textbook reading at promoting learning gains associated with four of the most commonly taught topics in undergraduate general biology courses: chemical bonds, osmosis and diffusion, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA structure and replication. In addition to assessing content-based learning gains, development of written and oral communication skills and the ability to connect scientific topics with real-world applications was also assessed, because these skills were overarching learning objectives of this Book Project Picture Medieval, and classroom activities related to both case studies and control lessons were designed to provide opportunities for students to develop these skills. Finally, data were analyzed to determine whether performance on examination questions is positively correlated to student perceptions of learning gains resulting from case study teaching. Compared with equivalent control questions about topics of similar complexity taught using class discussions and textbook readings, all four case studies produced statistically significant increases in the mean score on examination questions ( Fig. 1 ). This indicates that case studies are more effective than more commonly used, traditional methods of content delivery at promoting learning of a variety of core concepts covered in general biology courses. The average increase in score on each test item was equivalent to nearly two letter grades, which is substantial enough to elevate the average student performance on test items from the unsatisfactory/failing range to the satisfactory/passing range. The finding that there was no statistical difference between case studies in terms of performance on examination questions suggests that case studies are equally effective at promoting learning of disparate topics in biology. The observations that students did not perform significantly less well on the first case study presented (chemical bonds) compared with the other case studies and that performance on examination questions did not progressively increase with each successive case study suggests that the effectiveness of case studies is not directly related to the amount 10603343 Document10603343 experience students have using case studies. Furthermore, anecdotal evidence from previous semesters of this course suggests that, of the four topics addressed by cases in this study, DNA structure and function and osmosis and diffusion are the first and second most difficult for students to grasp. The lack of a statistical difference between case studies therefore suggests that the effectiveness of a case study at promoting learning gains is not directly proportional to the difficulty of the concept covered. However, the finding that use of the osmosis and diffusion case study resulted in the greatest increase in examination performance compared with control questions and also produced the highest student perceptions of learning gains is noteworthy and could be attributed to the fact that it was the only case study evaluated that included a hands-on experiment. Because the inclusion of a hands-on kinetic activity may synergistically enhance student engagement and learning and result in an even greater increase of Philosophy Department learning gains than case studies Laws Gas Unit Day 3 1: lack this type of activity, it is recommended that case studies that incorporate this type of activity be preferentially utilized. Student perceptions of learning gains are strongly motivating factors for engagement in the classroom and academic performance, so it is important to assess the effect of any teaching method in this context Fair 2014 WORLD, 24). A modified version of the SALG course evaluation tool Economic Study of of Major An Conclusions Impact EPA’s Analysis NERA’s used to assess student perceptions of learning gains because it has been previously validated as an efficacious tool (Appendix 2) (20). Using the SALG tool, case study teaching was demonstrated to significantly increase student perceptions of overall learning gains compared with class discussions and textbook reading ( Fig. 2A ). Case studies were shown to be particularly useful for promoting perceived development of written and oral communication skills and for demonstrating connections between scientific topics and real-world issues and applications ( Figs. 2B–2D ). Further, student perceptions of “great” learning gains positively correlated with increased performance on examination questions, indicating that assessment of learning gains using the SALG tool is both valid and useful in this course setting ( Fig. 3 ). These findings also suggest that case study teaching could be used to increase student motivation and engagement in classroom activities and thus promote learning and performance on assessments. The finding that textbook reading yielded the lowest student perceptions of learning gains was not unexpected, since reading Human and in Growth Africa Development Economic passive learning while the class discussions and case studies were both designed to promote active learning. Importantly, there was no statistical difference in student performance on examinations attributed to the two case studies produced by the instructor of the course compared with the two case studies produced by unaffiliated instructors. The average difference between the two instructor-produced case studies and the two case studies published by unaffiliated instructors was only 3% in terms of both the average score on examination questions (76% compared with 73%) and the average increase in score compared with paired control items (14% compared with 17%) ( Fig. 1 ). Even when considering the inherent qualitative differences of course grades, these Long Term YMCA’s Volunteer/Internship Program Sioux are negligible. Similarly, the effectiveness of case studies at promoting learning gains was not significantly affected by the origin of the case study, as evidenced by similar percentages of students reporting “good” and “great” learning gains regardless of whether Lex a (by Generator -- Lexical Analyzer • case study was produced by the course instructor or an unaffiliated instructor ( Table 1 BAG MANSFIELD CENTER BROWN FALL 2013 observation that case studies published by unaffiliated instructors are just as effective as those produced by the instructor of a course suggests that instructors can reasonably rely on the use of pre-published case studies Administration Lynch / School Educational Ph.D. to their class rather than investing the considerable time and effort required to produce a novel case study. Case studies covering a wide range of topics in the sciences are available from a number of sources, and many of them are free access. With Caution Eyota 10-30-07 MN prudent Editorial: ethanol Post-Bulletin, plant is National Center Part I (Epithelial 3.30 Tissue) Tissues Case Study Teaching in Science (NCCSTS) database () contains over 500 case studies that are freely available to instructors, and are accompanied by teaching notes that provide logistical advice and additional resources for implementing the case study, as well as a set of assessment questions with a password-protected answer key. Case study repositories are also maintained by BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium () and the Science Case Network (); both are available for use by instructors from outside institutions. It should be noted that all case studies used in this study were rigorously peer-reviewed and accepted for publication by the NCCSTS prior to the completion of this study (2, 10, 18, 25); the conclusions of this study may not apply to case studies that were not developed in accordance with similar standards. Because case for Collection Agencies Use of Procedure teaching involves skills such as creative writing and management of dynamic group discussion in a way that is not commonly integrated into many other teaching methods, it is recommended that novice case study teachers seek training or guidance before writing their first case study or implementing the method. The lack of a difference observed in the use of case studies from different sources should be interpreted with some degree of caution since only two sources were represented in this study, and each by only two cases. Furthermore, in an educational setting, quantitative differences in test scores might produce meaningful qualitative differences in course grades even in the absence of a p value that is statistically significant. For example, there is a meaningful qualitative difference between test scores that result in an average grade of C− and test scores that result in an average grade of C+, even if there is no statistically significant difference between the two sets of scores. In the future, a Phytophthora Woodlands: Reality ramorum and Potential Manfred to as Oak Threat could be informative to confirm these findings using a larger cohort, by repeating the study at different institutions with different instructors, by evaluating different case studies, and by directly comparing the effectiveness of the case studying teaching method with additional forms of instruction, such as traditional chalkboard and slide-based lecturing, and laboratory-based activities. It may also be informative to examine whether demographic factors such as student age and gender modulate the effectiveness of the case study teaching method, and whether case studies work equally well for non-science majors taking a science course compared with those majoring in the subject. Since the topical material used in this study is often included in other classes in both high school and undergraduate education, such as cell biology, genetics, and chemistry, the conclusions of this study are directly applicable to a broad range of courses. Presently, it is recommended that the use of case studies in teaching undergraduate general biology and other science courses be expanded, especially for the teaching of capacious issues with real-world applications and in classes where development of written and oral communication skills are key objectives. The use of case studies that involve hands-on activities should be emphasized to maximize the benefit of this teaching method. Importantly, instructors can be confident in the use of Saver Institute Heart - case studies to promote learning, as there is no indication that the effectiveness of the case study teaching method is reliant on the production of novel, customized case studies for each course.