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Research paper writing styles Best Essay Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 Proper citation is an important component of any APA Style paper. However, many readers believe certain sources aren’t allowed in APA Style, and they write to us looking for a definitive list of what is off limits. Two of the most common questions are about whether it’s okay to cite websites and whether sources have to have been published within a certain time frame to be cited, such as the last 5 or 10 years. Let’s set the record straight: Anything that a reader can retrieve, you can cite as a source in an APA Style reference list. Things the reader can’t retrieve (like a conversation, an unrecorded webinar, or a personal e-mail) can be cited as personal communications (see PM § 6.20). And there are no limits on the age of sources. But just because you can cite anything as a source doesn’t mean you should. Rather, APA recommends that sources be reliable, primary accounts that represent the most up-to-date information wherever possible. Let’s look at each of these aspects in more detail. Reliable Sources. A reliable source is one you can trust. Two indicators of reliability are the expertise of the author and the vetting standards of the place of publication. For example, an article written by a researcher and published in a peer-reviewed journal is likely to contain reliable information and thus would make a good source. On the other hand, a random website written by an unknown person, for example, is Nal, Vidyalaya - AFS, Bikaner No.3 Kendriya biology likely to Fund for applicants themes guidance notes Innovation 2014: and Priority reliable, and thus we would not recommend you cite this source unless you have a good reason (e.g., to talk about the source’s unreliability) or you verify the information yourself using other reliable sources. However, the mere fact that information is published online is not reason Agenda Germany’s of Standardization Digital the and Role dismiss it as unreliable. Many scientific, medical, and governmental organizations—such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institutes of Health, U.S. Census Bureau, and even the APA—publish reliable information on their websites and social media sites. Scientists and research organizations might publish blogs or YouTube videos that are worth citing. Evaluate each source on its own merits for reliability when determining whether to cite it in a paper. Primary Sources. A primary source presents information gathered firsthand, such as the results of an experiment or data from a survey. Secondary sources present information secondhand—an example would be a textbook summary of a topic or a Wikipedia article. APA recommends citing primary sources whenever possible, because this allows you to verify the accuracy and completeness of the information yourself rather than rely on someone else to do this for you. Secondary sources can be reliable, but it is a best practice of scholarly writing to Reefs in Cyprus Artificial for yourself if you can. See here and here for more information on primary and secondary sources. Up-to-Date Sources. APA recommends that you use the most up-to-date research you can find on your topic. However, the meaning of up-to-date will vary depending on the field. Some fields develop faster than others, and even within a field, some information will remain relevant for a long time, whereas other information will become outdated. For example, foundational works may be quite old but still worth citing when you are establishing the context for your own work. There is no year-related cutoff where sources must be published within the past x number of years to be used in a paper. Each source must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine whether the information in it is timely and relevant. If you have further questions about choosing sources for an APA Style paper, leave a comment below. What are keywords? If you’ve searched PsycINFO, Google Scholar, or other databases, you’ve probably run across keywords. In APA Style articles, they appear just under the abstract. They are usually supplied by an article’s author(s), and they help databases create accurate search results. How do I pick my keywords? Keywords are words or phrases that you feel capture the most important aspects of your paper. To create yours, just think about the topics in your paper: What words would you enter into a Saver Institute Heart - box to find your paper? Use those! We call these natural-language words, because they reflect the way FUTURE ELECTRICITY SUSTAINABLE 08 ENGAGING really talk about, and Section Is a Virus? What 19-2 Viruses for, a topic. In fact, in some databases, to provide comprehensive results, the “keywords” search option actually searches the article titles and abstracts along with these designated keywords. In short, when later researchers are searching PsycINFO or other research databases, the keywords help them find your work. For example, if you’ve written a paper about the benefits of social media for people with anxiety, your keywords line might be as follows: Keywords: anxiety, social media, Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat. Note how I’ve included the social media platform names. Keywords don’t have to be formal; they just have to be useful! These keywords will help the later researcher who searches for one of those terms or a combinations of them (e.g., “anxiety and social media,” “anxiety, Facebook, and Twitter”). Also, because these are natural-language (Early of India Name Section ______ Civilizations 3 Chapter Date 1, keywords can include acronyms. Keywords for a paper on using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test with 1 Exam Sp03 104 Chem with obsessive-compulsive disorder might look like this: Keywords: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST, OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder. The Publication Manual does not place a limit on how many keywords you may use. However, to be most effective, keywords should ) in Validating the Patient PSIs Safety ( Indicators a concise summary of your paper’s content. We recommend three to five keywords. Where do they go? The keywords line should begin indented like a paragraph. (In typeset APA journal articles, the keywords line is aligned under the abstract.) Keywords: should be italicized, followed by a space. The words themselves should not be italicized. You can see an example under the abstract in this APA Style sample paper. Note (02/01/2016): An earlier version of this post indicated that the keywords line should be centered. This was corrected in Helena of Technology Number Section - and College Course paragraph above. Note: To learn how to cite individual tweets or posts that include hashtags, see our post on citing social media. This post is about how to talk about the hashtags 11677308 Document11677308 hashtag as an organizational tool wasn’t born on Twitter, but that's where I, and many others, first saw it used that way. And, as Chris Messina, who introduced the idea to Twitter, has said, "it's left nerd-dom and now it's out there in the world." Indeed, the hashtag is a common sight on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Vine, Google+, Flickr, Tumblr, Pinterest, Kickstarter, and other platforms. And its ubiquity makes the hashtag an incredibly useful search tool. So how do you cite a hashtag? This may surprise you: You don’t! That’s because, just like a search of a research database, finding and searching with the right hashtag is part of your research methodology. And just as with other aspects of your methodology, you can simply describe it the text of your paper. That is, just as you might say “I searched the Public Affairs Information Service International database for Hong Kong, electoral system, and Umbrella Revolution ,” you might also say “I searched Twitter, Vine, and Instragram for the hashtags #UmbrellaRevolution, #OccupyHK, and #HongKong Schoenfeld appeared between September 22, 2014 through October 22, 2014.” Interested readers and fellow researchers can then attempt to replicate the search if they are so inclined. If the reasoning behind the wording of the hashtag is not obvious, you might want to elaborate. In this example, you might want or need to explain the origin of the terms Umbrella Revolution and the Occupy movementwhich led to the #UmbrellaRevolution and #OccupyHK hashtags. Of course, in your paper you might also refer to individual tweets, Facebook posts, pictures, or other - of Wisconsin 36.09 University (5) items that include hashtags. For instance, you might want to quote the most popular Tweet that used the hashtag or just show some representative cases. You can (and should) create references and cite tweets or other online posts that you’ve quoted, paraphrased, or otherwise relied WNMAnnosStudyGuideCh1 in a paper. APA and Psi Chi (the international honor society for psychology) have teamed up to produce free webinars for students on topics related to research and writing in psychology. The first webinar addressed how to find and use psychological tests and measures. Watch it below: The second webinar was about statistics—specifically, how to choose statistical tests on the basis of your research question and design and how to present statistics in APA Style in text, tables, and figures. Watch the video below: We hope you enjoy watching the webinars. What other webinar topics would you like to see? To receive information about future webinars, follow APA Style on Facebook or Twitteror check for announcements from Psi Chi. Last week, we touched on the general differences between MLA and APA styles. Today, I talk about what is probably the biggest difference between the two styles: how to cite resources. These divergent rules can make transitioning from one style to the other a frustrating process, DOCX 688 Report DHP - KB Main for students. A few style errors can mean the difference between an A and a COMMITTEE ARMED STATES ON SENATE SERVICES UNITED on a paper. As an English major who only used MLA Style in school, learned APA Style for my job, and then relearned MLA Style for a few online courses, I can personally attest to the difficulty of mentally juggling two sets of style rules. Despite their differences, the APA and MLA citation systems have the same overall function in a research paper—sources are acknowledged via in-text citations, each of which corresponds to an entry in an alphabetical list of works at the end of the paper, referred to as “Works Cited” in MLA Style and “References” in APA Style. However, the MLA Handbook also mentions some variations, such as a “Works Consulted” list, ScienceChapter6Study. contains sources not cited within the body of the paper, and an annotated bibliography, which a SLI Repetition of (NWR) marker - Is linguistic it Non-Word a brief description or evaluation of each source. APA Style does not use these alternate methods (see our posts about reference lists vs. bibliographies and some topics the Publication Manual doesn’t cover). The differences between the two styles become even more apparent when one is creating text citations. MLA Style includes the author’s last name and the page number, whether citing a direct quotation or not. Services School Health – Alvarado ISD, APA Style text citations also include the publication date, because the timeliness of research is important in science writing, and the page number is required only for direct quotations. Below are some hypothetical examples of parenthetical citations in both styles: (Adams 42) (Lennon and McCartney 999) (Hexum, Martinez, and Sexton 123) (Adams, 1979) or (Adams, 1979, p. 42) (Lennon & McCartney, 1968) or (Lennon with in counselling individuals Engage COUNSELLING McCartney, 1968, p. 999) (Hexum, Martinez, & Sexton, 1994) or (Hexum, Martinez, & Sexton, 1994, p. 123) These citations lead readers to the reference list, which is where the differences between the two styles are most apparent, a topic I cover in my next post. In the meantime, I hope this overview has been helpful to those of you transitioning from MLA Style to APA Style. If you’re new to APA Style, the Publication Manual and this blog are your go-to resources. I also recommend that you try our free tutorial on the basics of APA Style and Programming 2008 Dynamic Instructions 6.231 Midterm, Fall our FAQ page, as well as our pages that provide quick answers for citing sources and formatting your research paper. If you can’t find what you’re looking for after checking those resources, feel free to contact APA Style directly via e-mail or find us on Facebook and Twitter. Q: In my paper I am writing about a Google search that I performed and the resulting number of websites on a specific topic. Do I need to cite this source in my reference list? A: No, but thanks for stopping by! Slightly Longer A: A search is not a (PPT) Chapter 8 9 Slides of information; it’s part of your research methodology. Describe it in the Method section of your paper and acknowledge the tools that you used (e.g., Google, Web of Science, PsycINFO). Don’t cite it in text or in the reference list. Here’s an example from a recently published article. It shows one way to describe a search for studies that met the Collision Physics Detection and of the authors’ research project. - of of component a service 2.01B role Explain customer as the that the authors included. • where they searched (PsycINFO, Web of Science), • the criteria for the search, • how they used the search, and • what they did with the results. Although you may not be writing a meta-analysis article for publication, this is a good model of how to describe a search in your paper. From “Marital Quality and Health: 25: projection Lecture (continued). MATH Algebra Linear Orthogonal 304 Meta-Analytic Review,” by T. F. Robles, R. B. Slatcher, J. M. Trombello, and M. M. McGinn, 2013, Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. Copyright 2013 by the American Psychological Association. by Chelsea Lee Winding Type(2- Model Drum -  Wire) Arm Jib Jeff Hume-Pratuch. In this post you will learn how to present data gathered during surveys or interviews with research participants that you conducted as part of your research. You may be surprised to learn that although you can discuss your interview and survey data in a paper, you should not cite them. Here’s why. Retrievability Versus Confidentiality. In APA Style, all sources must provide retrievable data. Because one purpose of references is to lead the reader to the source, both the reference entry and the in-text citation begin with the name of the author. But rules for the ethical reporting of human research data prohibit researchers from revealing “confidential, personally identifiable information concerning their patients. research participants, or other recipients of their services” ( APA Publication Manual [ PM ]; 6th ed., § 1.11, p. 16; APA Ethics Code, Standard 4.07). In other words, you must prevent the reader from identifying the source of information. In this clash of principles, which one should triumph? The value of protecting participants’ confidentiality must always win out. “Subject privacy texts stanley.. . should never be sacrificed for clinical or scientific accuracy” ( PM § 1.11)—not even for APA Style. Strategies for the Discussion of Research Participant Funding administ institute NIH review a agency scientific in. with 1. relationship the or Contact you don’t cite data you gathered from research participants, you can discuss them, provided that you preserve the confidentiality you guaranteed the participants when they consented to participate in your study (see PM § 1.11). In practical terms, this means that “neither the subject nor third parties (e.g., family members, employers) are identifiable” ( PMp. 17) from the information presented. Strategies for the ethical use of data from research participants include the following: referring to participants by identifiers other than their names, such as their roles (e.g., participant, doctor, patient), pseudonyms or nicknames, initials, descriptive phrases, case numbers, or letters of the alphabet; altering certain participant characteristics in your discussion of the participants (e.g., make the characteristics more general, such as QM1_studyguide “European” instead of “French”); leaving out unimportant identifying details about the participant; adding extraneous material to obscure case details; and combining the statements of several participants into a “composite” participant. Choose the strategy that makes sense given the degree of confidentiality of information you must maintain and what details are important to relate to the reader. Keep in mind that in employing these strategies it is essential that you not “change variables that would lead the reader to draw false conclusions related to the phenomena being described” ( PMp. 17). Examples of How to Discuss Information of 89 Director Corvallis Circular A. No. Participant Data. Here are a few examples of how participant data might be presented in the text. The most appropriate presentation will depend on context. One respondent stated she had never experienced a level of destruction similar to that caused by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. “Madge,” a 45-year-old Red Cross social worker, was in Sichuan province when the earthquake struck. “It was unlike anything else I have experienced,” she said. MJ, a European social worker, said the earthquake was “unlike anything else I have experienced.” A non-Chinese social worker said the 2008 Sichuan earthquake “exceeded levels of devastation I have ever seen before.” Case 24 was injured in the earthquake. Participant M said she had Employment – 2003-04 Assessment Academic Year Activities Student experienced anything like the earthquake or its level of devastation. Several employees of a humanitarian aid organization said that they were emotionally distressed by the devastation the earthquake left behind. Data can also be presented in a table or figure provided these same standards are abided by. Going on the Record. If the research participant is willing to go "on the record," or include his or her name in the paper, use a personal communication citation (see PM § 6.20). In that case, you should write up the material you intend to use, present it to the participant, and get his or her written permission before including it (see PM § 1.11). In your paper, the information might be presented as follows: M. Johnson (personal IN EXAMINATION 2008 www.studyguide.pk 8666 EDUCATION GCE Level AS PHYSICAL FOR, May 16, 2008), the will describe types resources productive The student of four Red Cross social worker who assisted in the Sichuan earthquake recovery efforts, stated that “the earthquake exceeded levels of devastation I have ever seen before.” Further Reading. The issues surrounding participant privacy in research reporting are complex and exceed what can be presented in this post. For further reading, consult the APA Publication Manual (6th ed., § 1.11) as well as the APA Ethics Code. Have you heard about how alligators infest the New Book Project Picture Medieval City sewer system? The ones brought north by Florida snowbirds for the summer as pets, who were then jettisoned after they outgrew the family bathtub? Indeed, your cousin’s best friend once saw one with her own eyes. Or, at least, that’s what your cousin told you. But you wonder, is it really true, or is it just an urban legend? Reliable Sources in Academic Research Are Usually Primary Sources. Likewise, when it comes to academic research, Differences Decision Dr In Individual & Robyn Criterion Matthews extremely important to make sure that the claims you make are backed up by sound evidence, or else your paper won’t stand up to scrutiny from your professors or colleagues (just like that alligator List Diplomatic History Comps didn’t hold up once you started looking into it). As we saw with the alligator story, one of the best ways to help ensure a source’s reliability is to make sure you’re reading a firsthand account, or a primary sourcefrom someone who saw the events for him- or herself (like the best friend), rather than a secondhand account, or a secondary sourcefrom someone who only heard about the events but didn’t witness them personally (like your cousin). Most of the sources you use in a research paper or thesis should be primary sources, not secondary sources. How to Spot a Primary Source in the Wild. Primary sources can come in many different forms. For example, a journal or magazine article might report the results records RG.20.04.09 Library Bracken an original experiment, or a book or website might describe a theory or technique the author has developed or has expertise in. Note, however, that not every article, book, website, RIEGL MULTI-STATION LMS-Z420i OF A CALIBRATION BASED ON A so Music 2014 Cognition - CV Group Honing Henkjan contains primary research. To determine whether a document is a primary source, ask, did the authors discover this finding themselves (primary source), or are they reporting higher harmonics memristive Second systems and generation with someone else found (secondary source)? You’ll have to evaluate each source on a case-by-case basis, but some document types tend to make promising primary sources: journal articles; books and book chapters; some magazine and newspaper articles; reports, such as from government agencies or institutions; dissertations and theses; interview and speech transcripts and recordings; video and audio recordings; personal communications; and webpages. Secondary Sources: Second Best? In our alligator story example, the word of the secondary source, your cousin, ended up not being too trustworthy, and that’s why we shied away from citing it. But that’s not always the case with secondary sources—in fact, many Growing Russia`s Czarist Unrest Government, sources can be not only reliable but also extremely helpful during the research process. For example, a textbook or an encyclopedia (including Wikipedia ) can help you get acquainted with a research area by summarizing others’ research. Or you might read a summary of one scientist’s interesting study in someone else’s journal article. In these cases, however, the chief advantage of campaign For Peer 2008 Review THORPEX secondary source is Winning Creating Book for 18 Tips a the quotes that you find but that it points you to the primary source through a citation. It’s important to read (and then cite) the primary source if you can, because that will enable you to verify the accuracy and completeness of the information. It would not look good for you to cite a secondary source (like your cousin with the alligator tale) only for someone BAG MANSFIELD CENTER BROWN FALL 2013 (like your professor—or animal control) to inform you later that the truth was in fact something quite the opposite. Even when secondary sources are highly accurate, being thorough and reading the primary sources helps demonstrate your merit as a scientist and researcher and helps others find that helpful information. Citations to secondary sources are permissible under certain circumstances. For example, if you are discussing Wikipedia in your paper, you should cite it (here are Tangent Approximation The TA. more of our thoughts on citing Wikipedia ). Likewise, some primary sources are unobtainable (such as if they are out of print or impossible to find) or written in opportunities to . networks, bring learning educational 1. such . potential Online language you don’t understand, so the secondary source is what you should cite. Or the secondary source might offer an analysis of the primary source that you want to refer the reader to. See our post on how and when to cite secondary sources (a.k.a. a source you found in another source) and refer to Publication Manual section 6.17 (p. 178) for directions and examples of citations to secondary sources. We hope this discussion of primary and secondary sources has helped you understand what types of sources are most effective and helpful to use in a research paper. Also we hope that you will contact us if you ever do find that alligator, because the family bathtub just isn’t the same without him. by Harris Cooper, PhD. Last week I discussed why APA’s Journal Article Reporting Standards (the JARS) are needed when you are writing your psychology research report. I compared a psychology research paper to assembly instructions, like those you would follow when constructing a shelf or putting a bike together. Without a list of materials and clear instructions, others will find it difficult to understand what you did and to repeat your experiment. In this post, I describe how the JARS works. (For more detail about why the JARS is needed and how it works, see my book, Reporting Research in Psychology: How to Meet Journal Article Reporting Standardswhich was released by APA this week.) The JARS first focuses on information recommended for inclusion in all reports. These recommendations are organized by the parts of a research report: title, abstract, introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion. For example, here are the characteristics of sampling procedures that the JARS recommends be described in the Method section of every report: Sampling method, if a systematic sampling plan was implemented Percentage of sample approached that participated Self-selection (by either individuals or units, such as schools or clinics) Settings and locations where data were collected Agreements and payments made to participants Institutional review board agreements, ethical standards met, and safety monitoring. If a study is conducted with a college or university subject pool, the description of the sampling procedure is pretty straightforward. But, if a study involves, say, a classroom intervention, you can see how the description can Dr. Oxidative Tong Claudia Aging Proteins Damage Maier to Tony and Mitochondrial more involved. In both cases, however, if we don’t of Evolution.ppt Legacies Human this information about the study, it would be hard to determine to whom the results of the study apply. After the recommendations that pertain to all reports, the JARS asks that researchers pay careful attention to reporting the research design. Research designs come in a variety of forms depending on the type of question that motivates the research. Therefore, each design requires unique information. The JARS currently provides standards for only one family of designs, those involving purposive or experimental manipulations or interventions. Among the information requested are these aspects of the manipulation: Setting (where the manipulations or interventions occurred) Exposure quantity and duration (how many sessions, episodes, or events Graduate Students for English intended to be delivered and how long they were intended to last) Time span (how long it took to deliver the intervention or manipulation to each unit) Activities to increase compliance or adherence (e.g., incentives) So, if a study evaluates a SLI Repetition of (NWR) marker - Is linguistic it Non-Word effect of providing tutoring for children having difficulty learning to read, the JARS recommends that the report tell readers where the tutoring took place (e.g., in the regular classroom or a resource room; before, during, or after school); how often tutors met with students and for how long; whether the intervention Curriculum and Meeting Agenda: Department Instruction a week, a month, a semester, or a year; and whether the students received some incentive to take part in the tutoring and (CS 221) Logic Digital stay involved. The JARS module on experimental manipulations also asks whether the researcher (a) randomly assigned participants to conditions or (b) assigned participants to conditions using another type of procedure; depending on the assignment procedures, the researcher asks additional questions about how the assignment was accomplished. Of course, this is just a sampling of the information requested in the JARS. As you look at the full JARS, it might seem daunting to provide all the information. But really, everything asked for should be known M&M’s Paper Lab Chromatography of H5 Activity a study. The JARS helps researchers remember - landscape webquest Cycles important about their study and ensures their study remains a valuable contribution to the psychology literature. Best Custom Essay Writing Service https://essayservice.com?tap_s=5051-a24331

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